Basics of Pandunia
This document is a simple guide to the main features of Pandunia.
Letters and sounds
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in "are there three or two".
All other consonant are like in English except:
- c is like CH in church
- g is always hard
- r and h are never silent
- s is always voiceless
- x is like SH in shop
Words are made up of one or more roots and an ending. The ending indicates a part of speech.
- Nouns end in -e or in a consonant
- Adjectives end in -i
- Adverbs end in -o
- Active verbs end in -a
- Passive verbs end in u
Nouns indicate a group of one or more; definite or indefinite; masculine, neuter or feminine. Number, definiteness and gender are indicated by additional words.
– a cat, the cat, cats, the cats
un mau – one cat
multi mau – many cats
di mau – the/this/that cat(s)
|First||me (I, me)||mes (we, us)|
|Second||te (you)||tes (you)|
|Third||le (he or she, him or her)||les (they, them)|
The basic word order is subject–verb–object (SVO).
me ama te. – I love you.
Tense, aspect and mood are indicated with particles and helping verbs.
me zayo ama te.
– I am loving you.
(zayo indicates ongoing time i.e. progressive aspect)
me paso ama te. – I loved you. (paso indicates the past time)
me fino ama te. – I have loved you. (fino indicates completed action i.e. the perfect(ive) aspect)
me vilo ama te. – I will love you. (vilo indicates future time)
The word order is the opposite in passive sentences. Passive verbs have the ending -u.
– You are loved.
me amu te. – I am loved by you.
Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives are usually before the noun that they modify, but they can be can be after it too.
– new idea
idei novi – idea new
Adjectives are compared with max (more, -er), maxim (most, -est), min (less), minim (least) and sam (equally, as). The point of comparison is introduced with ka.
mi idei si max novi ka ti idei. – My idea is newer than your idea.
Adverbs end in -o. They are usually before the word that they modify, but not always.
me multo ama te.
– I greatly love you.
me ama te multo. – I love you greatly.
The word no denies the word that follows it.
no me a le vola kapa le
– Not me but he/she wants to take it.
me no vola kapa le. – I don't want to take it.
me vola no kapa le. – I want not to take it.
me vola kapa no le a de. – I want to take not it but that.
The question words are ke (what, who), ki (which) and ko (how). The normal word order is used in questions.
te ama ke?
– Who do you love?
ki man ama te? – Which man loves you?
te ama me ko multo? – How much do you love me?