Verbs

Verbs are unchanging in Pandunia. Things like person, number, time and mood are indicated by separate words, not by changing the form of verbs as in English and other languages.

Person and number

Person and number are indicated by the subject. For example, the verb e ('to be') has the same form for all persons.

mi e doste. – I am a friend.
tu e doste. – You are a friend.
ya e doste. – He or she is a friend.
mimen e doste. – We are friends.
tumen e doste. – You are friends.
yamen e doste. – They are friends.

Also a noun can serve as subject.

mau e zou. – The cat is an animal.

Frequently there is a marker between the subject and the verb to indicate where the subject ends and the verb begins. It is particularly helpful when the subject and the verb are content words that could serve as both. The marker is typically a particle or an auxiliary verb. One of the many suitable markers is ye ('yes'), which adds no content to the sentence but helps to clarify its structure.

peshe e mau yam. – Fish is catfood.
mau ye yam le peshe. – The cat eats fish.

Other suitable markers include auxiliaries of time and mood, which are introduced next.

Auxiliaries of time

The relationship of an action, event or state to time is indicated with auxiliary verbs.

kai ('begin', 'start') indicates beginning of an action or transition to a new situation.

mi kai fuku le kote. – I start wearing the coat. = I put the coat on.
kaguje ye kai hoge. – Paper starts to burn.
tu kai yam. – You start to eat.

ces ('cease', 'quit', 'stop') conveys the idea of "to stop doing something".

yamen ces haha. – They stopped laughing.
kaguje ye ces hoge. – Paper ceased to burn.

fin ('finish', 'complete') indicates that an action is done completely.

tu fin yam un piza. – You ate a pizza completely.
mi fin vide le filme. – I completed watching the film. / I watched the film completely.

zai '(be present') indicates that a situation is ongoing.

mi zai yam un piza. – I am eating a pizza.

dur ('keep on', 'continue', 'proceed') indicates that a situation is continuing or in progress.

mi dur yam le pizza. – I keep on eating the pizza.

ada ('have a habit', 'be used to') indicates that an action is done regularly.

mi ada gul le bir. – I have a habit of drinking beer.

leu ('attain', 'accomplish') indicates that a situation has been reached and it is the current position. It brings attention to the consequences of a past action to the current situation.

ya leu e guru. – He or she is a teacher now.
mi leu no gul le alkohol. – I don't drink alcohol anymore.
mi no leu gul le alkohol. – I haven't drank alcohol.
mi leu don le buke do yamen. – I have given the book to them. (They still have it and I don't.)
yamen no leu don ya re do mi. – They haven't given it back to me.
mi leu do citi. – I have come to the city.

pas ('pass', 'go past', 'go through') indicates that a situation is over and it is relevant only as an experience.

mi pas don le buke do yamen. – I gave the book to them. (Maybe they don't have it anymore or they gave it back.)
mi pas visite le France. – I have visited France.
mi pas ada gul le bir. – I used to drink beer. / I had a habit of drinking beer.