Correlatives

Correlatives are the words used to ask questions which require specific answers -- the "who, what, when, where, how" of a language, and their general answers ("there, here, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere").
-- Don Harlow

In Pandunia the "correlatives" are built from separate words in a lojiacal manner. Each "correlative" consists of a determiner and a noun.

The determiners are independent words. Basically it's an open class of words, so also other words can be used to create new "correlatives". Anyway, the most frequent determiners are listed below.

ke - what? which?
sa - this, that
yo - some
mei - every, each, all
nul - none

Basic category nouns are:

jen - person
xe - thing
yang - kind, type
lok - place
sat - time, moment

These determiners and category nouns can be combined into this table of correlatives.

Question Pointer Indefinite Universal Negative
Person ke jen
(who)
sa jen
(that person)
yo jen
(someone)
mei jen
(everyone)
nul jen
(no-one)
Thing ke xe
(what)
sa xe
(that thing)
yo xe
(something)
mei xe
(everything)
nul xe
(nothing)
Kind ke yang
(what kind of)
sa yang
(that kind of)
yo yang
(some kind of)
mei yang
(all kinds of)
nul yang
(no kind of)
Place ke lok
(where)
sa lok
(there)
yo lok
(somewhere)
mei lok
(everywhere)
nul lok
(nowhere)
Time ke sat
(when)
sa sat
(that time)
yo sat
(sometime)
mei sat
(all the time)
nul sat
(never)

Countries, peoples and languages

Pandunia uses the names that the people use to refer to themselves or their country. Sometimes they are very different than the names that other (foreign) people use. The spelling is always adapted to Pandunia.

britan - Britain
espanya - Spain (España)
barat - India (Bharat)
rusia - Russia (Rossiya) nipon - Japan (Nippon)
jungo - China (Zhōngguǒ)
misri - Egypt (Misr)
naidjiria - Nigeria (Naijiria)

The country name can be different than the names of the peoples or ethnic groups that inhabit it.

  • britan - Britain
    • englix - English
    • skot - Scot
    • kemri - Welsh (Cymru)
  • rusia - Russia
    • ruski - Russian
    • tatar - Tatar
    • backor - Bashkir

The word for inhabitants of the country is country name + jen (person).

britan jen - a Brit
espanya jen - a Spaniard
barat jen - an Indian

The name of a language is the name of the ethnic group + bax (language).

englix bax - English (language)
kemri bax - Welsh (language)
ruski bax - Russian (language)

Types of people

Guru denotes a master or an expert in a field.

darse guru - teacher (master of learning)
din guru - priest (master of religion)
hakim guru - judge (master of justice)

Nik denotes a person is associated with the thing or quality specified by the base word. Usually the person does the thing for pleasure rather than for business.

safar nik - tourist (travel enthusiast)
moda nik - fashionista (fashion enthusiast)
musik nik - music enthusiast

Places

Kan denotes a place for public activities.

darsa kan - school (learning place)
kitab kan - library (scripture place)
kafe kan - café (coffee place)

Also bet (house) and kaban (booth) can be used

Fields of science

Fields of science usually end in lojia (study).

tekne lojia - technology (study of techniques)
fizik lojia - physics (study of the physical)
jive lojia - biology (study of life)
bumi lojia - geology (study of the ground)
dev lojia - theology (study of the god(s))